David Rizzio el "Primer Ministro" de la Reina María Estuardo que fue asesinado por celos por el marido de la reina. Hoy 7 de septiembre de 1533 nace David Rizzio

Nació el 7 de septiembre de 1533 y murió el 9 de Marzo de 1566.

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07/09/2015
de 09:15 a 09:15

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David Rizzio, sometimes written as David Riccio or David Rizzo (c 1533 – 9 March 1566), was an Italian courtier, born close to Turin, a descendant of an ancient and noble family still living in Piedmont, the Riccio Counts di San Paolo e Solbrito, who rose to become the private secretary of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary's husband, Lord Darnley, is said to have been jealous of their friendship, because of rumours that he had impregnated Mary, and joined in a conspiracy of Protestant nobles, led by Patrick Ruthven, 3rd Lord Ruthven, to murder him. The murder was the catalyst for the downfall of Darnley, and it had serious consequences for Mary's subsequent career.

Career
Introduction to Court

Rizzio (whose name appears in Italian records as David Riccio di Pancalieri in Piemonte) went first from Turin to the Court of the Duke of Savoy, then at Nice. However, finding no opportunities for advancement there, he found means to get himself admitted into the train of the Count de Moretto in 1561, who was about to lead an embassy to Scotland.

The Court in Scotland had no employment for Rizzio, and dismissed him. He ingratiated himself with the Queen's musicians, whom she had brought with her from France. James Melville, a personal friend of Rizzio, said that "Her Majesty had three valets in her chamber, who sung three parts, and wanted a bass to sing the fourth part". Thus, he was drawn into her court (Hawkins, 1778).

Further advancement
He was considered a good musician, and an excellent singer, which first brought him to the attention of the cosmopolitan young Queen. Towards the end of 1564, having grown wealthy under her patronage, he became the Queen's secretary for relations with France, after the previous occupant of the post retired there. This post attracted a quarterly salary of £20. Ambitious (seeing himself as all but a Secretary of State), a Catholic and a foreigner to boot, Rizzio, it was felt, was too close to the Queen. Rumours became rife that Mary was having an adulterous affair with Rizzio.

Murder
David Rizzio was stabbed 56 times on 9 March 1566 by Lord Darnley and his friends. He was accused of leaving Mary Queen of Scots pregnant.

Background
Jealousy precipitated his murder in the Queen's presence, in her supper chamber ("a cabinet about XII foot square, in the same a little low reposinge bedde, and a table" in the Palace of Holyroodhouse after the royal guards were quickly overpowered and the palace was turned over to the control of the rebels.

Queen as witness
The Queen was seven months pregnant (with James VI) at the time. Having burst into the Queen's private dining room, the rebels, led by Patrick Ruthven, 3rd Lord Ruthven, demanded Rizzio be handed over. The Queen refused. Rizzio then hid behind Mary but was nevertheless seized and stabbed to death in the presence of the Queen.

Murder and burial
After this violent struggle, Rizzio was stabbed an alleged 56 times, before being thrown down the main staircase and stripped of his jewels and fine clothes. He was buried within two hours in the cemetery of Holyrood. Buchanan and Daniel state that shortly afterwards his body was removed by the Queen's orders and deposited in the sepulchre of the Kings of Scotland; a measure most impolitic, as it strengthened the previous reports of her familiarity with him (Ruthen 1815). Rumours were thrown around as to why this happened to Rizzio – most claim Darnley was jealous.

Aftermath
Rizzio's brother, Joseph, arrived in Scotland with Michel de Castelnau and was appointed secretary in David's place by 25 April 1566. Joseph and an Italian colleague, Joseph Lutyni, had some trouble over coins taken from the queen's purse, and in April 1567 he was accused and acquitted with Bothwell of Darnley's murder.

Legacy and memorial
David Rizzio's career was remembered and referred to by Henry IV of France. Mocking the pretension of James VI of Scotland to be the "Scottish Solomon", he remarked that "he hoped he was not David the fiddler's son", alluding to the possibility that Rizzio, not Darnley, fathered King James.

Whilst it has been alleged that Rizzio is buried at Canongate Kirkyard, Edinburgh this is highly unlikely as this would have required reinterment of a Catholic with no living friends in a Protestant graveyard 120 years after his death. It is more likely and logical that he lies in an unmarked grave in the graveyard attaching Holyrood Abbey.

The Protestant historian George Buchanan wrote in 1581 that David was first buried outside the door of the Abbey, and then Mary arranged for him to be buried in the tomb of her father James V and Madeleine of France within. As Buchanan described this circumstance as reflecting badly on the Queen, while his book was at the printers, a friend James Melville tried to get Buchanan to rewrite the passage, fearing that Mary's son James VI would suppress the whole book. Buchanan asked his cousin, Thomas Buchanan, a schoolmaster in Stirling, if he thought the story was true, and the cousin agreed. The story was published.

Rizzio is played by John Carradine in the 1936 RKO picture Mary of Scotland, directed by John Ford; and by Ian Holm in Mary, Queen of Scots , the 1972 Universal picture directed by Charles Jarrot

Rizzio's life and death are a key plot element in Caleb Carr's Sherlock Holmes story The Italian Secretary, Holmes vocally dismissing the idea that Rizzio was ever anything more than entertainment.

Rizzio is a character in Queen's Own Fool, a historical novel by Jane Yolen and Robert J. Harris.

The takers in hand
Thomas Randolph listed these men as participants in Rizzio's murder:

Earl of Morton
Patrick Ruthven, 3rd Lord Ruthven
Patrick Lindsay, 6th Lord Lindsay
William Maitland of Lethington
Master of Ruthven
John Cockburn, laird of Ormiston
The laird of "Haughton," William Sinclair of Herdmanston
John Crichton, laird of Brunstane
The laird of Whittinghame
The laird of Lochleven
The laird of Elphingstone (Johnston)
Patrick Murray
Andrew Kerr of Fawdonsyde-son-in-law of John Knox
William Tweedie of Drumelzier
Adam Tweedie of Dreva
with the preachers; John Knox and John Craig.

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